Understanding 3D Model Optimization: A Key to Enhanced Gaming Experience

Making Of / 04 July 2023

Optimizing 3D Models: Boosting Game Performance and Realism


In the fast-paced world of gaming and virtual/augmented reality (VR/AR), the optimization of 3D models plays a key role in delivering a compelling experience. This discipline goes beyond the mere creation of graphically fascinating structures; it’s a matter of balance between visual quality and game fluidity, ensuring a detailed yet smooth gaming environment. Optimizing 3D models, through techniques such as low-poly modeling to reduce the number of polygons, the application of physically accurate textures (PBR), and the crucial process of ‘baking’, can increase loading speed, graphic rendering, and interactivity of a game. 

The baking is a phase where detailed information from a 3D model, such as highpoly details, are baked into 2D maps, making the model more efficient to render. A properly optimized 3D model not only improves the player’s experience but also broadens your game’s accessibility, making it more amenable to users with different types of hardware. In this article, we will examine the importance of optimizing 3D models, using our American Style Mailbox 3D Model as an example to show how a well-designed model can boost game performance. 

Whether you are a game developer, a 3D modeling enthusiast, or a gamer curious to learn more about the technology powering your favorite titles, this article will provide a detailed analysis of the 3D model optimization process, including an in-depth discussion on baking. Join us on this technological journey and discover how our American Style Mailbox 3D Model can elevate the quality of your game project, taking it to new levels of realism and performance.

Optimized 3D Model of an American Style Mailbox, Game Ready

Understanding Low-Poly Models: A Key to Enhanced Gaming Experience

In the constantly advancing world of 3D modeling and game design, low-poly models have become a critical tool in optimizing performance. But what exactly does “low-poly” mean, and why does it matter?

Defining "Low-Poly Model" and Its Importance in Gaming

A low-poly model, as the name suggests, is a 3D model that uses a minimal number of polygons to represent its shape and structure. By reducing the polygon count, we lighten the computational load required to render the model, leading to improved performance across various hardware specifications. But the magic of low-poly models doesn’t stop at mere performance enhancement; with the right techniques, they can still boast a high level of visual appeal, enabling designers to create engaging and visually stunning games without compromising on performance.

The Impact of Low-Poly Models on Loading Speed and Game Lag

How does this translate to the actual gaming experience? Here are a couple of ways:

  • Improved Loading Speeds: A high-poly model, due to its complex structure, can take significant time to load, resulting in longer wait times before gameplay can commence. A low-poly model, in contrast, is simpler and quicker to load, enabling players to get into the action faster.
  • Reduced Game Lag: Game lag can be incredibly frustrating for players, and one common cause is the processing demand of high-poly models. By using low-poly models, the game requires less processing power, reducing the likelihood of lag and ensuring a smoother gameplay experience.           

Wireframe View of American Style Mailbox 3D Model - Illustrating Low-Poly Design

HighPoly to LowPoly Modeling and Normal Map Baking: A Key Technique in Game-Ready 3D Modeling

Once you understand the value of low-poly models in gaming, the next step is to explore how we transform complex, high-polygon models into optimized, low-polygon versions without losing the essential details that give the model its realism and character. This is where the techniques of HighPoly to LowPoly modeling and normal map baking come into play.

The Art of HighPoly to LowPoly Modeling

HighPoly to LowPoly modeling is a process used in 3D modeling where a high-polygon or high-poly model is recreated as a low-polygon or low-poly model. The objective is to retain the original model’s defining features while significantly reducing its polygon count.

This technique not only improves game performance but also makes 3D models more manageable and easier to manipulate during the game design process.

The Magic of Normal Map Baking

While the conversion from high-poly to low-poly reduces the model’s complexity, it can often result in a loss of fine details. This is where normal map baking comes in. Normal mapping is a technique used in 3D computer graphics to simulate the intricate details of a high-poly model in its low-poly counterpart.

In this process, a normal map — a type of texture that allows us to add surface detail such as bumps, grooves, and scratches — is generated from a high-poly model and then applied to a low-poly model. This creates the illusion of depth and detail without adding extra polygons. The result is a model that is efficient in terms of performance but still maintains a high level of visual fidelity.

By skillfully applying these techniques, we were able to create an optimized yet visually appealing version of our American Style Mailbox 3D Model.

Matcap View of LowPoly American Style Mailbox 3D Model without Normal Map

Detailed View of LowPoly American Style Mailbox with Normal Map

Detailed Matcap View of LowPoly American Style Mailbox with Normal Map Applied

Optimizing a 3D Model: The American Style Mailbox Case Study

Let’s delve into 3D model optimization using a practical example: our American Style Mailbox 3D Model. This serves as an excellent demonstration of how to optimize a 3D model for gaming, balancing performance and visual quality.

Transforming HighPoly to LowPoly: Techniques for 3D Model Optimization

Optimizing a 3D model begins with transforming a high-poly model into a low-poly one. Techniques range from retopology, suitable for organic objects or characters, to decimation via modifiers or removal of modifiers like Subdivision Surface and Bevel. 

After, the 3D model’s geometry is further refined.For the mailbox model, we used a non-destructive method, preserving the modifiers while creating the high-poly version. This retained the model’s details and enabled us to optimize it into a low-poly model.    

The Step-by-Step Creation of an Optimized Low-Poly Model

After preparing the high-poly version, we created the optimized, low-poly model. We duplicated the high-poly model, removed the modifiers, and meticulously adjusted the topology of the low-poly model.

This process drastically reduced the model’s polygon count, making it suitable for gaming applications without sacrificing visual appeal. This case proves that 3D model optimization can effectively balance performance and aesthetics in game design.

In the following section, we delve into how the technique of normal map baking enhanced the American Style Mailbox 3D Model’s quality even further. 

Unwrapping the 3D Model: The Key to Effective Texturing

Before we can move on to the texturing stage, the 3D model first needs to go through a process called unwrapping. This is a fundamental step in the creation of any 3D model meant for gaming, including our American Style Mailbox.

The Art and Science of 3D Unwrapping

 3D unwrapping can be likened to peeling an orange and laying its skin flat. Just like how each segment of the peel corresponds to a specific part of the orange, each part of the flattened UV map corresponds to a specific part of the 3D model. 

This process, while technical, can be considered an art of its own as it requires both precision and a clear understanding of the model’s geometry. For our American Style Mailbox, the unwrapping process involved digitally ‘unfolding’ the model’s surface to create a UV map. 

Each polygon of the model was strategically mapped onto a 2D surface, ensuring that every detail was accounted for.

UV map of American Style Mailbox model created in Blender for texture mapping process

The Importance of a Well-Done Unwrap

The unwrapping stage is essential because it lays the foundation for effective texturing. A well-done unwrap will produce a UV map that maximizes texture space, minimizes distortion, and takes into account the visual hierarchy of the model.

By carefully unwrapping our American Style Mailbox 3D Model, we ensured that the texture will accurately follow the shape and details of the model.In the following section, we will take a closer look at the next stage: baking the details onto our model through the use of a normal map. 

American Style Mailbox model with UVGrid Checker shown in Sketchfab interface

Baking the Details: Harnessing the Power of Normal Maps with Marmoset Toolbag

The transformation from a high-poly to a low-poly model would not be complete without the baking process. This essential step allows us to capture the intricate details from the high-poly model and apply them onto the low-poly counterpart, providing the best of both worlds: a visually appealing model that doesn’t burden the game engine.

For the American Style Mailbox, we used a robust and efficient software called Marmoset Toolbag for the baking process. 

Marmoset Toolbag: A Powerful Tool for Efficient Baking

One of the crucial parts of baking with Marmoset Toolbag involves setting the right output settings. Here, you can determine the resolution, anti-aliasing quality, bit depth, and how to save your outputs. Toolbag even provides an automated padding feature that extends the baking content beyond the UV borders, which adjusts according to your resolution. 

Moreover, Toolbag’s “Bake Groups” are dedicated folders with slots for both high and low-poly meshes. These are especially helpful for isolating different elements of your model and preventing intersection errors.

Projection Tools and Advanced Baking Techniques

Marmoset Toolbag is known for its powerful projection tools, enabling you to control the projection distance and direction of the cage. Additional features like Offset and Skew help enhance the quality of your bake, while the Quick Loader can read object names from your mesh file and automatically set up Bake Groups. 

The Offset refers to the minimum (black) and maximum (white) extent of the offset map, while Paint Skew adjusts details that are recorded suboptimally due to an off-axis projection direction. With Marmoset Toolbag, you can paint offset and skew maps either in 2D or 3D using painting tools with Photoshop-style shortcuts. 

This software makes the baking process more intuitive, precise, and efficient, ensuring high-quality game-ready 3D models like our American Style Mailbox. In the next section, we’ll dive into the final part of creating our game-ready model: texturing.

American Style Mailbox model baking process visualized in Marmoset Toolbag interface

Texturing the Model: Breathing Life into the Mailbox with Substance Painter

Texturing, the final frontier in our 3D model creation process, is what truly brings a model to life. It gives color, conveys material type, and introduces fine details that increase the model’s realism and individuality. For our American Style Mailbox, we used a powerful software: Substance Painter.

Substance 3D Painter: The Artisan's Tool for Realistic Textures

Substance Painter is renowned in the 3D industry for its comprehensive and intuitive suite of texturing tools. With its ability to create materials from scratch and apply them to 3D models in a user-friendly environment, it is no wonder that it has become the go-to tool for many artists.

Painting the Colors of Reality

Texturing is much more than simply applying color to a model. It’s about emulating the nuances of real-life materials on a digital surface. For our mailbox, we paid careful attention to the metallic parts, ensuring that they reflected light realistically. The red paint was also given a slight wear and tear, hinting at its exposure to the elements. 

With Substance Painter’s array of brushes and procedurally generated masks, we managed to replicate the intricate textures found in reality. From the roughness of the metal to the subtle scratches and chips on the paint, each texture was meticulously crafted.

Material Definition and Fine Detailing

Another significant aspect of Substance Painter is its PBR (Physically-Based Rendering) workflow. It enables the creation of materials that respond accurately to lighting conditions, which is vital for achieving a high level of realism. 

In addition to colors and materials, texturing also involves adding finer details to the model. For our mailbox, this included small aspects like rust, dust, and scratches. These tiny details might seem insignificant, but they can drastically enhance the model’s overall believability and depth. 

Overall, a well-executed texturing job does more than just beautify a model—it brings it to life. It gives the model character and history, making it more than just a static object in a game environment. 

In the next section, we’ll discuss the final renders of our American Style Mailbox and how all these steps culminate in a game-ready 3D model.

MailBox 3D Model Rendering

The Result: A Game-Ready, Optimized 3D Model

Bringing together the meticulous processes of low-poly modeling, unwrapping, baking, and texturing, we’ve achieved our goal: a game-ready, optimized 3D model of an American Style Mailbox. But why does this matter? The primary benefits of such an optimized model are improved game performance and a more fluid, immersive user experience. 

As games become more complex, with large environments and numerous objects, the performance demands on hardware rise. An optimized model, like our mailbox, lowers the performance burden, enabling smoother gameplay even on less powerful hardware. The advantages aren’t only technical. An optimized model ensures that gamers don’t face annoying disruptions like stuttering, frame drops, or excessively long loading times. 

This leads to a more immersive experience, where the gamer can lose themselves in the game world rather than battling with technical glitches.


In the realm of 3D game design, optimization is not just a nice-to-have – it’s a necessity. As we’ve demonstrated with our American Style Mailbox model, optimization doesn’t mean compromising on visual quality. Instead, it involves making smart design choices, utilizing techniques like low-poly modeling and baking, and executing careful texturing work. 

Our hope is that this deep dive into the process has been insightful for you, whether you’re an aspiring 3D artist, a game developer, or someone with a passing interest in the behind-the-scenes work that goes into your favorite games. But don’t take our word for it – why not experience it for yourself? We invite you to try out our American Style Mailbox 3D Model in your game or VR/AR environment. Witness firsthand the seamless blend of visual quality and performance optimization. Who knows? It might just change the way you think about 3D game assets. As we continue to push the boundaries of optimization and design, we look forward to bringing you more unique, game-ready models. Stay tuned!

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👉 Original article published on 3DSkillUp Website    


The Making of the Hot Dog Cart: From 3D Modeling to Publishing on Marketplaces

Making Of / 15 February 2023

The Making of the Hot Dog Cart: Introduction

Discover the secrets of my latest 3D Hot Dog Cart model, optimized for both Unity and Unreal game engines. This model was created with a low polygon count in mind and I also added LODs for even better optimization. With 7 unique texture sets, each with its own UV space, the textures are amazing and the resolution is top-notch.

The components are separated for easy rigging and animation. The tools I used were: Blender for modeling and unwrapping, with the help of HardOps, BoxCutter, and MeshMachine 3D addons. Marmoset Toolbag was used for baking, and Substance 3D Painter for texturing.    

From Inspiration to Reality: The Concept Design of My 3D Hot Dog Cart

I’m always on the lookout for inspiration when it comes to creating game props. I take screenshots while exploring open world games and save them in a folder for later. Another great source of inspiration is checking out the talented artists on Artstation. For my hot dog cart concept, I was inspired by a similar cart in GTAV. As a street food fan, I couldn’t resist the temptation to bring my own version to life. 

To gather references, I did some research by searching for images and 360-degree views of hot dog carts using Sketchfab. I also watched videos on YouTube to gather more information about the various components and features of hot dog carts. I wanted my design to be as realistic as possible, so all of this information was invaluable.

I kept all of my references organized using PureRef, a fantastic tool for collecting references. I had it open in a small window on the bottom right of my screen for easy access. Here are some of the images I used as reference.      

From Blocking Out to Highpoly: The Journey of a 3D Hot Dog Cart Model

The blocking out phase is a crucial step in the 3D modeling process. This involves creating simple shapes to assess the proportions and silhouette of the model. If you have good references, such as front, side, and top images, you can start modeling directly in the 3D viewport. But if you don’t have any references, the blocking out phase becomes even more important. 

In my case, I had a silhouette available for my hot dog cart model, so I was able to start modeling right away. Personally, I like to start with some details, such as bevels and subdivisions, to get a sense of satisfaction and see if I’m on the right track. That’s why I started with a highpoly model.        

Overcoming Challenges in 3D Modeling: The Hot Dog Cart Edition

When it comes to modeling new game props, I always think about how I can utilize my hard surface modeling skills and techniques. My goal is to have a clean and organized topology, despite using booleans, the subdivision surfaces modifier, and bevels and chamfers. I also enjoy using the remesh workflow for creating high poly models. I carefully consider my approach for each component I model. 

One common challenge in hard surface modeling is cleaning up the topology after boolean operations. Fortunately, addons such as HarOps, BoxCutter, and MeshTool can greatly help speed up the process. I like to model based on references, tracing the profile and building the mesh, manipulating vertices and using my favorite modifiers. This technique helps to achieve a result that is faithful to the original and therefore more realistic. 

Another challenge is maintaining accurate scale, proportions, and thicknesses in 3D objects. To overcome this, I always compare my models to a reference character that is approximately 180cm tall or look for exact measurements of the real object when available.    

Unwrapping and Baking

When it comes to unwrapping and creating UV maps, I used Blender. I created 7 texture sets for 7 materials to maximize texture resolution. During the unwrapping phase, I used the ZenUV and UVPackmaster add-ons that provide fantastic functions to properly unwrap the mesh. UV unwrapping can be a time-consuming process, but fortunately, there are some great addons that can help you speed it up and improve the quality of your UV maps. One such addon is UVZen, which offers a range of helpful functions, including a tool for calculating Texel Density. This allows you to distribute texture resolution evenly across all mesh components, ensuring that your textures look great on every part of your model. Additionally, UVZen makes it easy to straighten UV shells and together with UV Packmaster offers many other useful functions that can help you get the most out of your UV maps. By using these addons, you can streamline your workflow and create better unwrapping and 3D models in less time.

After finishing the Unwrapping and material assignment phase, I exported the highpoly and lowpoly fbx files and then used Marmoset Toolbag for baking. I cannot stress enough how fantastic this software is, it has an intuitive interface and allowed me to make photorealistic renderings, texturing, animations, and much more! 

Marmoset Toolbag’s sophisticated baking system made the process even easier and more precise by allowing me to correct artifacts in real-time and make operations on the cage such as adjusting the offset or the skew map. Working with advanced and high-quality tools is always a pleasure! Additionally, starting from version 8.3 of Substance 3D Painter, the baking system has been reviewed and significantly improved.


Texture creation is all about organization and attention to detail. I’ve learned a lot from observing talented artists on Artstation and their tutorials, which I’ll share at the end of this article with links to their profiles. I focus on one piece at a time during texturing, but I also know that starting with a basic material for all components of the object and gradually adding more detail can be an interesting approach. This is a similar logic to what’s often used in modeling and sculpting. 

To keep my layers organized in Substance Painter, I divide them into folders and give them logical names. I begin with a base material and then add variations in roughness and color as needed. I also use generators or smart masks to add effects such as dirt, scratches, etc. I love combining these generators with the curvature map or ambient occlusion to create interesting effects on the edges of objects or in cavities. 

Texturing is a process that requires attention to detail and organization. It’s important to have a good collection of references for the different materials, to look at every detail, and to try to recreate what works best for our project. During the texturing phase of the hot dog cart, I discovered a very interesting filter in Substance 3D Painter to recreate the water droplets on the hot dog cart sink. It’s called MatFX Water Drops and it really helped me add that extra touch to my model.       

Optimizing the 3D Hot Dog Cart Model through Levels of Detail (LOD)

After completing the texturing, I exported the PBR maps for Unity and Unreal using the Substance 3D Painter configuration. Then, I created the Levels of Detail (LOD) using Blender and exported them as fbx files. LODs are versions of the original model with a reduced number of polyggon, which are loaded based on the distance from the camera. I used the Blender decimate modifier to create the LODs. 

For the subsequent LODs, in addition to decimation, I also eliminated components that wouldn’t be visible from far away. Finally, I loaded textures at different resolutions for each LOD, for example, LOD0 in 4K, LOD1 in 2K, LOD2 in 1K, etc. 

Optimizing your 3D model is like giving your game a power-up! It helps ensure a smooth and speedy gaming experience, especially on devices with limited processing power like mobile phones or lower-end PCs.Creating Levels of Detail (LODs) is a super smart move when it comes to optimizing your 3D models. Think of it like having different versions of your model, each with fewer polyggon details. This means the GPU can process them more easily and efficiently. And, when the camera moves away from the model, the LOD with fewer details will be loaded, saving resources and helping your game run even smoother. 

Textures are another important piece of the optimization puzzle. By loading lower resolution textures for LODs, you can lighten the load on the GPU and improve performance.By doing all of this, you’ll be giving your hardware a break and reducing the number of drawcalls required. The result? A more fluid and enjoyable gaming experience for you and your players.       


Once the optimization was complete, I published the model on major 3D model marketplaces such as the Unity Asset Store, CGTrader, BlenderMarket, Artstation Marketplace, FlippedNormals, so game developers and 3d artists can purchase and use it in their projects. Additionally, I published a timelapse video on my YouTube channel showing the creation of the 3D model and its texturing. 

I am very grateful to the supportive community that provided valuable feedback during the development process. I want to invite everyone to try the 3D Hot Dog Cart model in their game projects and provide me with their feedback, so I can continue to improve and perfect my 3D models. Thank you for reading this article, and I hope to have inspired you to create increasingly beautiful and functional 3D models.

Special Thanks to

🔥 Paula Sánchez-Ferrero for her awesome course on Domestika

🔥 Blender Italia, the community where my journey into the world of Blender and 3d computer graphics started 

🙂 And many other people who every day teach me something new                                        


Here are some great channels to follow and resources

🔥 Old Chair Full Creation Process (by Andrew Averkin) – (affiliate link) 

🔥 Learn HardOps and BoxCutter (by BlenderBros) (affiliate link)

Stay updated and Follow 3DSkillUp on:

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👉 Original article published on 3DSkillUp Website            


🪕 Breakdown - Modeling a Banjo with Blender - Full Process Time-Lapse

Making Of / 07 May 2022

Modeling a Banjo with Blender (full process timelapse)

Hello friends of Artstation. Today I am sharing with you my entire timelapse workflow of creating a game asset with Blender, marmoset Toolbag and Substance 3D Painter.

✔️ I start the high poly modeling and create the 3D lowpoly model of the Banjo with Blender. 

✔️ Then the unwrapping phase with and then the baking of the normal map, ambient occlusion and curvature with Marmoset. 

✔️Finally how to texturing with Substance Painter the Banjo, this ancient musical instrument of African origin. 

🎮 This process is what I usually use to create a Game Asset, with an additional step that is the creation of the LODs.  So get comfortable, brew a refreshing tea (or even a cool Mojito 🍹 if you prefer) and enjoy the whole process.  

🖥️ Software Used: 

✔️ Blender 

✔️ Marmoset Toolbag

✔️ Substance 3D Painter